Related Autoimmune Neurological Diseases

Autoimmune Neurology is a rapidly evolving field in Neurology. Autoimmune diseases that target the central nervous system involve a variety of diseases that are distinctly different from multiple sclerosis (MS). An example of an antibody-mediated neurological disease is Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD); once thought to be a form of multiple MS, NMOSD has now been defined as a distinct clinical–pathological disorder, although the initial clinical presentation and neurological symptoms may mimic MS. Additionally, newer recognized autoantibody-mediated neurological diseases include autoimmune encephalitis such as NMDA receptor encephalitis, among others.

Some risk factors for developing autoimmune neurological diseases include:  coexisting autoimmune disease, such as thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, lupus, or other rheumatologic disease; family history of autoimmune disease; and cancer association and factors such as smoking that put you at risk for cancers.  However, sometimes patients do not have any of these risk factors.The two most common antibody-mediate autoimmune encephalitides are NMDA receptor encephalitis and LGI1 autoimmune encephalitis which are detailed here:

Please read on for more information on Autoimmune Neurological Diseases, which we've grouped into these three main categories:

  • Encephalitis
    • Including NMDA Receptor Encephalitis, LGI1 Autoimmune Encephalitis and Autoimmune Epilepsy
  • Autoimmune Demyelinating Syndromes
    • Including Neuromyelitis Optica (NMOSD) and MOG Antibody Disease (MOGAD)
  • Other Autoimmune Neurological Diseases
    • Including Stiff Person Syndrome, Autoimmune/Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Ataxia, Transverse Myelitis, Neurosarcoidosis, Central nervous system (CNS) Vasculitis, and Neuro-rheumatological disorders




Piquet Amanda cudocsDr. Amanda Piquet
Rocky Mountain MS Center
Dr. Piquet specializes in Autoimmune Neurological Diseases related to multiple sclerosis, and has produced numerous papers on various subjects in this field.  Click here to see Dr. Piquet’s complete bibliography of contributions at the National Library of Medicine.